GLOBALCUNY Abstracts 2015

Poster Presenter Campus

Poster Title

Poster Presenter Campus

Poster Title

Obeng Buo
Borough of Manhattan CC

The Dynamics of Water Storage Over Lake Eyre, Australia Observed by Satellite Data

This study investigated the dynamics of water storage over Lake Eyre, Australia using Polarization Ratio Variational Index (PRVI) values from The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and precipitation rate from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Lake Eyre, the largest lake in Australia and 18th largest in the world is an ephemeral lake that fills up on rare occasions. Satellite microwave data such as PRVI values from AMSR-E are sensitive to surface change which helps to monitor soil surface wetness from space to detect inundation, hence, in this study the PRVI values were used to observe the water storage variation in Lake Eyre. We examined monthly satellite precipitation rate from TRMM and PRVI from AMSR-E for the time frame of three years (2008-2010) to analyze the links between rainfall rate and water storage dynamics in the Lake. Overall results show that high rain rate in the Lake’s watershed is followed by high values of PRVI indicating water storage in the Lake. High values of PRVI are observed from April to November 2009 that is consistent with recorded rise of the Lake’s level by about 1.5 m during the same period. During dry seasons, there is a high possibility of drought in the Lake’s basin. In the future, we will also analyze the water storage variation against evapotranspiration which is the loss of water to the atmosphere from soil surfaces through evaporation.

Anuoluwapo Bolarinwa
City College

Evaluation Of The Efficiency Of Photo-Fenton Disinfection Of Cauca River Samples Containing Escherichia Coli (K12).

The old method of disinfection is not always the best method in ensuring safety because of some bacterial that are resistant to disinfection, the combination of Fenton reagents with light represents an efficient method for water disinfection especially for antibiotic bacterial. The aim of this study is to use direct viable count fluorescence in situ hybridization (DVC-FISH) on real water samples from the Cauca River subjected to both photo-Fenton and solar water disinfection to detect resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli K12). Both Photo Fenton and solar water disinfection process were used to treat 16 polyethylenterephthalat (PET) bottles (2.5 mL of water samples in each bottle). The disinfection test was done and the water samples were taken out during the disinfection at 4 different time intervals for analysis. The Photo-Fenton in polyethylenterephthalat (PET) bottles was analyzed at 0 minute, 60 minutes, 120 minutes, and 180 minutes and the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) was done inside the PET bottles and at the same time frame. The samples were analyzed for total, viable and cultivable E. coli. Two plate containing 10 wells was used for the process, one for Photo Fenton and the other one is for SODIS. Wells A and B contains samples at 60 minutes disinfection, wells C and D contains samples at 120 minutes disinfection, well E and F contains samples at 180 minutes disinfection, and well G and H contain samples at zero minute disinfection. The rates of viable E. coli were less than 50 % in the presence of Fe2+/H2O2/hv compared to basic SODIS system (light) which more than 50 % of it bacterial has elongated. The study indicated that the photo-Fenton process can be used as an effective treatment for water containing E. coli K12.

Andrew Wills
NYC College of Technology

Public Health Surveillance of Type 2 Diabetes in St. Kitts and Nevis

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization, Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a preventable chronic disease affecting 10% of the world’s population and is the second leading cause of mortality in St. Kitts and Nevis (SKN).
Design and Methodology: This mixed-methodological study sought to investigate the DM perceptions of SKN citizens using a modified WHO STEPwise instrument, focusing on DM risk factors such as diet, exercise, comorbidities, and open-ended questions targeting perceived DM risk. Our participants (n=224) were Kittitians or Nevisians between ages 18-75.
Original Data and Results: Approximately 12.0% of respondents self-reported a diabetes diagnosis and of those persons comorbidities of hypertension and high cholesterol were common (52% and 33% respectively). Dietary practices included consumption of fruits and vegetables at least 4-7 days per week (63.0% and 60.0% respectively). Cooking practices such as adding salt “often” or “always” during cooking (62%) seems a greater education opportunity than targeting “eating food not prepared at home” 0-3 times a week (77%). Men were approximately twice as likely to exercise vigorously as part of work and leisure (4-7 days a week) as women. While the severity of DM was clear to respondents, the relationship between DM, exercise, diet and genetic predisposition were not consistently noted. Finally, over 1/3rd of respondents were not aware of the DM support services offered by the Ministry of Health.
Conclusion: Results suggest that educational materials and interventions targeting DM risk factors and management of comorbidities would be beneficial.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization, Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a preventable chronic disease affecting 10% of the world’s population and is the second leading cause of mortality in St. Kitts and Nevis (SKN).Design and Methodology: This mixed-methodological study sought to investigate the DM perceptions of SKN citizens using a modified WHO STEPwise instrument, focusing on DM risk factors such as diet, exercise, comorbidities, and open-ended questions targeting perceived DM risk. Our participants (n=224) were Kittitians or Nevisians between ages 18-75.Original Data and Results: Approximately 12.0% of respondents self-reported a diabetes diagnosis and of those persons comorbidities of hypertension and high cholesterol were common (52% and 33% respectively). Dietary practices included consumption of fruits According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization, Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a preventable chronic disease affecting 10% of the world’s population and is the second leading cause of mortality in St. Kitts and Nevis (SKN).Design and Methodology: This mixed-methodological study sought to investigate the DM perceptions of SKN citizens using a modified WHO STEPwise instrument, focusing on DM risk factors such as diet, exercise, comorbidities, and open-ended questions targeting perceived DM risk. Our participants (n=224) were Kittitians or Nevisians between ages 18-75.Original Data and Results: Approximately 12.0% of respondents self-reported a diabetes diagnosis and of those persons comorbidities of hypertension and high cholesterol were common (52% and 33% respectively). Dietary practices included consumption of fruits and vegetables at least 4-7 days per week (63.0% and 60.0% respectively). Cooking practices such as adding salt “often” or “always” during cooking (62%) seems a greater education opportunity than targeting “eating food not prepared at home” 0-3 times a week (77%). Men were approximately twice as likely to exercise vigorously as part of work and leisure (4-7 days a week) as women. While the severity of DM was clear to respondents, the relationship between DM, exercise, diet and genetic predisposition were not consistently noted. Finally, over 1/3rd of respondents were not aware of the DM support services offered by the Ministry of Health. Conclusion: Results suggest that educational materials and interventions targeting DM risk factors and management of comorbidities would be beneficial.

Finola Fung-Khee
Borough of Manhattan CC

The Assessment Of Lead, Cadmium And Copper In Soil Around The Companhia Brasileira De Chumbo (COBRAC) Lead Smelter In Bahía, Brazil.

Lead smelters have been known to be one of the main Lead smelters have been known to be one of the main culprits of lead contamination in the environment with adverse effects lingering for many years. In this study lead and cadmium concentrations were assessed in Companhia Brasileira de Chumbo (COBRAC) lead smelter in Santo Amaro, Brazil; a site which has been closed for twenty-two years. Soil samples were collected from three points (60m, 75m and 120m) from the factory. At the furthest sample point (120m) a busy roadway leading through the town of Santo Amaro can be found. Soil samples were returned to the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) where they were dried, pretreated to break down any organic material and then tested for levels of lead and cadmium using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The findings revealed that the heavy metal concentrations decreased by more than two fold at each sample point, as you move away from the factory. Lead concentrations were found to be 500% above the EPA’s level at 60m from the factory but fell below EPA levels by the third sample point, 120m from the factory. Cadmium was found to be below the EPA levels at all points of collection. The data indicated significant decrease in concentrations as you move further away from the COBRAC smelter. culprits of lead contamination in the environment with adverse effects lingering for many years. In this study lead and cadmium.

Claudia Vargas Romero
Hunter College

Deliberative Group Valuation. Case Study: Guabas River In Valle Del Cauca, Colombia

The conventional valuation of ecosystem services through individual expression using methodologies such as contingent valuation has been much criticized. Since many of the goods and services provided by ecosystems are considered to be public goods, and difficult to evaluate, it is logical that the decisions related to their use and sustainability should be taken as a community entity rather than as individuals looking to satisfy their own preferences disregarding the implications to others or to the ecosystems themselves. This paper analyzes techniques related to deliberative group valuation of ecosystem services of watersheds. It also provides a specific methodological design for the implementation of these techniques in the Guabas river, in Colombia. This methodology will be implemented in February, 2016. After that, the data obtained will be analyzed and the corresponding reports will be carried out.

Yardley Martinez
Bronx CC

The Role Of Heavy Metal Atpase 3, Glutathione, And Phytochelatin In Cadmium Chelation And Detoxification In Rice

Heavy Metal ATPase 3, glutathione, and phytochelatin may play significant roles in the detoxification of cadmium in rice (Oryza sativa) and may regulate the amount of cadmium that accumulates in the grain. The main goal of this study is to examine the expression profiling in the different tissues of four different rice lines of three different genes (heavy metal ATPase 3. glutathione, and phytochelatin) that may influence cadmium transport radially across the root, into the vacuoles and/or the loading of cadmium into the xylem and phloem. Four different rice cultivars were chosen which exhibited different grain characteristics in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the rice grain. The rice plants were grown in a hydroponic environment and half were treated with cadmium (0.5 µM), while the other served as the control group. Half of each of these groups were allowed to grow until two weeks after anthesis stage, while the other half were harvested during the vegetative stage. Xylem sap extractions, tissue digestions, and RNA extraction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed at the time of harvesting. The findings for plants harvested during the vegetative stage show statistically higher levels of phytochelatin expression in a low cadmium accumulator rice line treated with cadmium, and statistically lower levels of heavy metal ATPase 3 expression in a high cadmium accumulator rice line treated with cadmium, which may give evidence to heavy metal ATPase 3 and phytochelatin playing a large role in cadmium detoxification in rice. Continued research and analysis of gene expression in the rice plants grown two weeks after anthesis may provide more evidence of significance of heavy metal ATPase 3, glutathione, and phytochelatin in cadmium detoxification and transport in rice.

Welbeck Sowah
Bronx CC

Evaluation Of The Effects Of Ca+2 On Cd+2 Toxicity And Phytoremediation By A301 Rice Oryza Sativa Cultivar.

Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, has detrimental effects on plant metabolism and human health. In an effort to determine factors that influence the absorption of Cd+2 from the environment, this study evaluates the effects of calcium ions on phytotolerance to Cd+2 toxicity in A301 rice Oryza Sativa cultivar. Seedlings of A301 cultivar were in cultured in Murashige and Skoog 1962 media supplemented with varying incremental Ca+2 ions concentrations and 50 mg/l of Cd+2 ions in a randomized experimental design. Analysis of vegetative growth, a growth parameter in one week old seedlings culture in vitro was carried out. The values for the five concentrations of Ca+2 ions treatments were; 320 mg/L = 1.69ml Ca+2, 380 mg/L = 2 .37ml Ca+2, 440 mg/L = 2.17ml Ca+2, 500 mg/L = 2.71ml Ca+2, and 560 mg/L = 1.87ml Ca+2. Analysis of variance (anova F-test) and t-tests for mean separation of growth parameters including biomass accumulation in 3 week old cv. A301 seedlings was determined. The treatment with 560mg/l calcium ions was most tolerant to cadmium toxicity based on the mean value of the seedlings vegetative growth (3.173 ± 0.4908) and its biomass accumulation of 15.35g. The concentration of residual cadmium in the MS media for both control and treatment group was lower (0.022mol/L) in the treatment with 560mg/l calcium ions. The results will be used to determine the phytoremediation potential of A301 cultivar of Oryza sativa.

Jose Salas
City College

Necessary Conditions For Stability Of Permanent Rotations Of A Chain Of Two Lagrange Gyrostats Moving In A Gravitational Field

A gyrostat is a mechanical system consisting of a rigid carrier and other bodies connected to it such that their motion relative to the carrier does not alter the mass distribution in the mechanical system. Examples of such systems include a rigid body to which axes of several symmetric rotors are connected, or a rigid body with cavities completely filled with a homogeneous fluid. Mechanical models involving gyrostats are used in aerospace engineering for controlling the attitude dynamics of spacecraft and for stabilizing its rotations.
In this presentation we study the problem of the motion of a chain of two Lagrange gyrostats coupled by an ideal spherical joint. The chain moves about a fixed point in a central Newtonian force field. Under the assumption that the gyrostatic moment of each gyrostat is constant relative to its carrier, we give the conditions for existence of the chain’s permanent rotations about a vertical axis and then establish the necessary conditions for stability of these motions. We analyze these conditions both numerically and analytically to determine the regions of their fulfillment as well as the instability regions in the chain’s parameter space.
Our findings extend corresponding results known for the chain moving in a homogeneous gravitational field to the case of the non-homogeneous field as well as generalize some of the known properties of permanent rotations in the many-body dynamics; they can be used for solving various science and engineering problems (e.g., control and stabilization of satellites).

Robin Sosa
City College

Mapping and Characterization of Contaminated Mangrove Ecosystems in Areas Under Processing Activity of Lead in the Basin Subaé of Santo Amaro, Bahia

In the city of Santo Amaro, Bahia there was once a lead smelter factory that was in operation for roughly 33 years. During its time in service, it’s by products contaminated the surrounding mangrove environment. This plant contaminated the air, soil and nearby Subaé River with what is assumed to be lead(Pb), cadmium(Cd), manganese(Mn), zinc(Zn), copper(Cu), nickel(Ni) and iron(Fe). The objective of this research is to investigate if the soil in the mangrove ecosystem in the vicinity of the factory in question is indeed contaminated with these metals or any other potentially toxic elements as a direct result of this plants operation. As of now we have been able to obtain results for silica, cadmium and lead from our samples, but tests and more results are still pending before a final analysis of our acquired data can be presented. The information gathered from this experiment when concluded, if the soil is found to be contaminated, will then be provided to the government of Bahia so that they can inform the public and try to prevent further farming/fishing within these contaminated areas. This information will also be used to try to mitigate or completely cleanse the environment through such methods as phytoremediation and others.

Nia Rene
Brooklyn College

Effect of Septic Systems on Soil Quality in Tierra Baja (2015)

A multiyear project was created in Cartagena , Colombia to observe the environmental conditions of five suburban townships known as La Boquilla in northwestern Cartagena. The project began in June of 2009 and continued in the summer of 2010, 2012 and 2015. Septic tanks and latrines are the most common sewage treatment systems found in La Boquilla. This study will focus on the effect of septic systems on the quality of soil in Tierra Baja (one of the townships of La Boquilla) in 2015. The soil quality measurements include pH, iron content and bacteria population. Soil samples were collected from a total of 26 houses throughout a portion of Tierra Baja with the most dense population. The effect of septic tanks on the soil quality in Tierra Baja is demonstrated by its fecal coliform concentration. There exists about twice as much fecal coliform in the soil near the septic tank and drain field area, than in the front of the houses. There is a direct link between fecal coliform contamination in soil and septic sewage systems in Tierra Baja.

Sheri Reid
Kingsborough CC

Altitudinal Variance Affects Genetic Diversity And Gene Flow Of Cephalotes Sp. In The Capão Valley Of Chapada Diamantina National Park

Studies on genus Cephalotes are essential to understand how gene flow and genetic variability vary due to differences in altitude. Observing Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) is an effective methodology for achieving this goal due to its high polymorphism level, reproducibility, and low cost. Primers Mao and Terry were deemed the most effective primers for identification of the alleles in Cephalotes that are subject to genetic variations due to change in environment and altitude based on PCR products viewed on a polyacrylamide gel.

Dalton Bermudez
City College

Colocalization Of Membrane Rafts, Glycocalyx Components, And Nitric Oxide Production

The glycocalyx is essential for nitric oxide production, which leads to vesseldilation. We are focusing on two membrane domains within the glycocalyx: lipidbasedmembrane rafts (lipid rafts) and protein-based membrane rafts (caveolae).These domains contain proteoglycans (PGs) with associated glycosaminoglycans(GAGs). In this study, bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were exposed to 30minutes of shear stress in order induce the production of proteins such as glypican-1, eNOS, phosphorylated-eNOS, and caveolae. A separation technique, including apercoll gradient followed by a sucrose gradient to obtain membrane fractions, wasused to observe colocalization between proteins of interest. A Western blot wasperformed to determine the amount of related proteins in comparison to BAECs under static conditions. We hypothesize that glypican-1 will colocalize with caveolae in the endothelial plasma membrane.

Marieme Toure
NYC College of Technology

Star Chromatic Index Of A Complete Graph

This project is about graph theory. Graphs consist of a set of vertices and a set of edges, where the edges run between vertices. Often we think of graphs as pictures, with the vertices as points and the edges as lines between some of the points.An important type of graph is the complete graph K(n) of degree n. This graph has n vertices and there is an edge between any pair of distinct vertices.The star chromatic index of a graph G is the minimum number of colors needed to color the edges of G so that:
• no two edges of G which share a common vertex have the same color;
• every path or cycle of length four contains at least three edges whose colors all differ.
This project involves investigating the star chromatic index of K(n) as n increases, with a view to answering the following published open question (see [1]):
Q. Does the star chromatic index of K(n) increase linearly with n? This project will involve a mixture of computer analysis, combinatorial analysis and graph theory. A complete answer would be publishable in a good peer reviewed research journal like the Journal of Graph Theory. Even if a full answer can’t be given, we will be able to contribute to ongoing research efforts by writing a computer program to find the star chromatic index of K(n) for many values of n, and the results of this program could be published in a journal specializing in undergraduate research.

Rahonel Fernandez
Queensborough CC

Synthesis Of Imidazolium Based Ionic Liquids

Ionic liquids continue to attract interest from a broad audience owing to their attractive tunable physical properties. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been widely studied and characterized, however, there is still a lack of understanding on the molecular level of how the interaction of the constituent ions gives rise to their observed physical properties, such as viscosity and conductivity. In this work we have synthesized several imidazolium ionic liquids bearing ether side chains of varying lengths and their 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10-carbon alkyl analogues. The halide salt precursors were synthesized by reacting 1-methylimidazole with an alkyl or alkoxy alkyl halide under reflux conditions. The purified halide salts were then reacted with lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (LiNTf2) in water at room temperature. The NTf2 ILs were purified and dried under high vacuum until they had less than 100 ppm water. The structures were confirmed using H-1 and C-13 NMR and the ILs were characterized for their physical properties.

Ibrahim Alassani
City College

Modal Identification Of Footbridge Of Footbridge Subjected To Human Interaction

The Benchmark pedestrian bridge project fostered research interest in human-structure interaction through a number on tests. The scope of this analysis was narrowed to the natural frequencies and modal identification of human-induced vibration on the pedestrian bridge. Two tests were conducted to understand the dynamic responses of the pedestrian bridge and perform a comparative analysis of the results. Some discrepancies were found between the dynamic responses of the pedestrian bridge due to human-induced vibration and shaker-induced vibration. In the case of human-induced vibration four fundamental frequencies were identified (3.98 Hz, 7.76 HZ, 13.32 HZ, and 23.8 HZ) while six fundamental frequencies (3.98 HZ, 7.60 Hz, 12.7, 12.97 Hz, 23.47 Hz and 25.54Hz) were identified in the case of Shaker-induced vibrations. The discrepancies are likely to be due to human-structure interaction that may result in damping of energy in the system. The modal shapes found here are based on Matlab models of Fast Fourier Transform in test1 and Power Density Spectrum in test2. The two approaches do not raise any significant differences in the results. The results reinforced the necessity of pursuing different tasks such as analysis of damping, modal identification of different configurations, investigating damping ratio for the sake of having a good damage assessment. These tasks will allow one to peruse the spectrum of dynamic responses of the pedestrian bridge due to human activities.

Eddie Fernandez
Queens College

Designing Asymmetrical Dicationic Ionic Liquids

In this project, ionic liquids (ILs) containing symmetrical and asymmetrical dications were synthesized in order to study the effect of structural asymmetry on the physical properties of these ionic liquids. Asymmetrical dicationic ILs bearing triphenylphosphonium and trimethylammonium cationic sites bridged to imidazolium, and pyrrolidinium cationic sites by a carbon chain, with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) anion were synthesized. The ILs were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis to determine their thermal properties including melting point, glass transition point, and degradation point. Further characterization included testing each IL for their viscosity and conductivity across a range of temperatures. Of the ionic liquids synthesized, two were found to be room temperature liquids, while the triphenylphosphonium dicationic IL was a solid with a melting point of 70 °C. By synthesizing symmetrical dicationic ILs along with asymmetrical ILs, we were able to confirm that longer carbon chains reduce melting points considerably. We can use this knowledge to synthesize asymmetrical ILs with lower melting points. The ionic liquids synthesized in this project will be involved in a parallel project on binary mixtures of ILs where dications are of interest.

Karen Cuevas
Brooklyn College

Using ArcGIS to Georeference an Archaeological Site

Using a combination of survey techniques using digital tools and methodologies such as Phosphate testing, soil and water testing, etc. along with data from unpiloted aerial vehicles (UAV) to better understand the relationships of geological features, structures and environmental response within the island of Barbuda. The data is then represented through layers in GIS maps. This will help gain a better understanding of the relationship of various archaeological sites, their state of preservation and prioritize areas that are in need of rescue excavation either due to weather erosion or modern building activity and urban sprawl. Using desktop ArcGIS to georeferenced all the images collected through the UAV and then in combination with GIS georeferenced the archaeological features. The datasets created with this information will be brought into the web-based ArcGIS Online to create an interactive web map that will include the information the additional information from the archaeology, transcriptions and research

Shaderra Glover
Baruch College

In Vitro Antioxidant And In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Cymbopogon Citratus

Heart disease, cancer and Alzheimer’s are major disorders influenced by chronic inflammation. Pro-inflammatory signals that trigger these diseases can be initiated by the overproduction of free radical molecules called oxidative stress. The cost of medication and the side effects of synthetic medicines makes finding natural solutions to inflammation and oxidative stress imperative. Our study proposes that lemongrass plant tissue may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be developed to make a safe, cost-effective drug. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) is a common herb used to make medicine and cosmetics. The essential oil of the plant contains the active ingredients, Citral α and β. Citral may contribute to Lemongrass’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity by deactivating transcription factor kappa-B (NF-kB). When cells are exposed to damage signals (such as oxidative stress), they activate NF-kB, which turns on the expression of over 400 genes involved in the inflammatory response (Sethiet al. 2008). The method used to check for anti-inflammatory activity was comparing swelling in rats’ foot injected with plant tissue extract to rats in a control group; to check for antioxidant activity the absorbance of DPPH was recorded for different dilutions of plant tissue extract. Rats injected with lemongrass plant tissue had on average less inflammation and a quicker recovery than rats in the control group. Three hours after induced inflammation, the rats’ foot in the experimental group increased 27% from its normal size and in the control group increased 53% from its normal size. The following hour the swelling in the rats’ foot in the experimental group decreased by 13%, while the swelling in the rats’ foot in the control group decreased by 7.4%. After six hours, the rats’ foot in the experimental group returned to their normal size and the rats’ foot in the control group remained 24% larger than its normal size. Based on this experiment lemongrass plant tissue has anti-inflammatory properties that affected the level and length of inflammation. More experiments on a larger scale need to be done to confirm these results. As seen by the absorbance of DPPH by lemongrass in comparison to a known anti-oxidant BHT, this plant may also be used as an antioxidant. There was a liner relationship between the absorbance and concentration of the antioxidant showing that a concentrated lemongrass will have high antioxidant properties. This is useful as BHT and other strong antioxidants are synthetic, while lemongrass is a natural shrub with much less adverse side effects.

Alexis Gorin
College of Staten Island

The Anti Inflammatory And Antioxidant Properties Of Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis, known as Rosemary, has been used throughout history for its aromatic and medicinal properties. Rosemary has been shown to have anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective properties. However, this experiment will focus on its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in particular. According to the National Center of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, it is currently estimated that about 1-1.3 million people suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Oxidative-stress has been associated with many diseases including liver and heart diseases as well as some cancers. Firstly, GC/MS was performed on Rosemary oil extracted through distillation to obtain a qualitative analysis of the essential oil. Alongside this, solute extraction of Rosemary was being conducted and used to test antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the Rosemary extract. Our results show that the anti-inflammatory properties in the essential oil extracted from Rosemary are mild at best. Pertaining the of the antioxidant effects of the Rosemary leaf extract, results show that it can be used as an antioxidant agent, showing better results than BHT.

Jeury Mejia
Borough of Manhattan CC

iPhone Indoor Navigation System for Visually Impaired People

Localizing visually impaired people maneuver with ease within indoor environments such as large campus building, museums, etc. is critical important for them to have a normal social life.In this work, we implemented an iPhone based indoor navigation app to help visually impairedpeople dealing with localization and navigation problem. This application system is implementedusing a smartphone (iPhone currently) with a special designed omni directional lens mounted on
its case. The lens takes omnidirectional images, which represent panoramic information of the environment in single shot. All the indoor environment information covered within this system are compacted by extracting concise features from them and stored in a remote GPUenabled server. When users want to localize themselves, they just need to capture a short period of video.The app will send the compressed information to the server and the server will calculate the
location and feedback to the user. In the server processing procedure, this information is compared to the already stored information in a large database and the current location is identified based on that. We apply socket programming to communicate between iPhone from end the server backend. The server can potentially provide service to multiple users at the same time, which makes the system easy to scale up. The application can process data acquisition,transmission, and query process in real time, and as fewer mobile memory as possible are used to
free the phones from other functions. The Graphic User Interface (GUI) is also designed specially for visually impaired people by dividing it into two panels. The user’s panel, which is for the visually impaired, is simple and intuitive to use, and the configuration panel, which is for
the developer/family member, can accept different kinds of parameters to make the system suitable for different kinds of environment and visually impaired personal preferences. Real campus building indoor environment database is built and the tested result shows a good
performance both in terms of accuracy and robustness.

Vaughn Greene
City College

Analysis Of Methacrylate And HEMA Copolymer Hydrogel Mechanical Properties

Finding a hydrogel capable of exhibiting exceptional mechanical properties for tissue engineering is challenging. When hydrogels polymerize for a long period of time, they will form constructs that possess a high modulus, but will have a low elasticity, and vice versa. A hydrogel construct that retains its elastic modulus, toughness, and has a high extensibility once hydrated is desirable for a variety of applications. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) is used currently used for tissue replacement, but does not achieve the necessary toughness needed for other tissues. Hydrogels with high toughness would possess the strength necessary with significant changes in deformation such as the trachea that requires longitudinal flexibility and lateral rigidity required during normal respiration. Modifying the gel network by using different monomers, or combining HEMA with different monomers would change the mechanical properties of the resulting gel. The mechanical property of vinyl methacrylate, isobutyl methacrylate, and 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, in comparison to HEMA, will be assessed through mechanical testing using an instron testing device. Through this method we can to determine if these variations in structure will alter mechanical properties of modulus, toughness and elasticity associated with their hydrogel constructs.

Aileen Fernandez
Lehman College

Understanding Form And Function In The Hominin Postcranial Skeleton Using Geometric Morphometric Techniques

Modern humans are the only obligate biped species within all living primates, and thus studying the postcranial skeleton in their fossil hominin relatives sheds light as to how evolutionary morphological changes related to bipedalism occurred. In this study we focus on the foot, which is the only part of the body that comes in contact the ground during bipedalism. Angular measurements of the talus bone of chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas, humans and fossil hominins were collected from laser surface scans using 3D engineering software. The sample size was 145 specimens. Data were analyzed using the scientific statistical analysis software PAST. Results of a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) show that fossil hominins from Koobi Fora, Kenya dating back between 1.7-1.8 million years old, fall within the range of Chimpanzees and outside that of modern humans, which means they retained a more ape-like motion in the ankle joint. PC 1 demonstrated the most variance at 54%. PC 1 loading was mainly influenced by the angulation between the trochlea facet and talar head (TAL-4). PC 2 separated gorillas from all other taxa, mainly due to a distinct orientation between the medial malleolar facet and lateral malleolar facet (TAL-3). PC 3 did not separate any taxa from each other. These results determine that certain measurements separated different taxa more than others, and are thus, perhaps, more informative of ankle motion and locomotor behavior. Future study will increase the sample size, and include specimens from the newly discovered Homo naledi to better understand its possible locomotor behavior.

Roy Nunez
Hunter College

Uncovering The Genomic Basis Of Treponema Phenotype Diversity

Members of the spirochetal genus Treponema exhibit extensive phenotypic diversity in parasitism, host range, and virulence. For example, Treponema pallidum Nichols is the causal agent of syphilis and prevails in primate urogenital tissue. Treponema pallidum pertenue is the causal agent of yaws, a human skin infection. Treponema succinifaciens is a non-pathogenic species found in pig intestines while Treponema caldaria is the only free-living species known so far. To identify the genetic basis of Treponema phenotypic diversity, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of spirochetes, which confirmed that Treponema is a genetically diverse genus as well. We then downloaded whole-genome sequences of eleven Treponema isolates from NCBI and identified 239 core orthologs shared by all isolates. We inferred a phylogenetic tree based on the core orthologs, and reconstructed gene gains and losses. Highly variable genomic locations of these core orthologs indicate extensive genome rearrangements during Treponema diversification. After identifying presence and absence of gene families in individual genes, we used maximum parsimony to reconstruct evolutionary gains and losses of genes at each level of the Treponema phylogenetic history. Evolutionary reconstruction revealed a massive amount of gene losses and pseudogenization as a result of evolutionary transition from free-living to parasitic life styles. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline for automated identification of gains or losses as well as for confirmation of such gene gains and losses through visualization of genome synteny for subsequent analysis of their respective phenotypic roles in host-pathogen interactions. Most interestingly, we saw four clonal groups with less than 15 gains and losses in total between them that exhibit very diverse phenotypes. Diseases caused by these four strains range from skin disease in cows to syphilis in humans.

Victoria Antonetti
Lehman College

Affects of Cympobogon Citratus Against Oxidation In Vitro

Ayanna Reed
Lehman College

InSAR Time Series Analysis of Crustal Deformation associated with the August 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake in California

One year following the August 2014 magnitude 6 South Napa Valley earthquake in California, we applied the Persistent Scatter Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar(PSInSAR)techniqueto generate a time series of 56 interferograms via the short baseline subset approach (SBAS). The interferograms were used to detect evidence of crustal deformation in the South Napa region prior to the event. Detection of pre-seismic deformation was essential to our objective of testing the feasibility of creating a consistent and reliable early warning system via space based methods. Raw (level 1.0) ALOS PALSAR satellite data (22 images spanning 2007-2009), initially acquired by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) and stored in the data archives by the Alaska Satellite Facility, was used for this study. For SAR processing, we used Remote Sensing Software Package Graz from the Joanneum Research Institute. In this time series, no significant deformation was detected prior to the event. We conclude that it is beneficial to our future research to observe regions of actively deforming faults. We find that in the absence of extended periods of low seismic activity, such as in the 25 years of low seismic activity in South Napa, we are more likely to detect pre-seismic deformation.

Joyce Tam
NYC College of Technology

Fabrication of Lindenmayer System-Based Designed Engineered Scaffolds Using UV-Maskless Photolithograph

In the field of tissue engineering, design and fabrication of precisely and spatially patterned, highly porous scaffolds/matrixes are required to guide overall shape of tissue growth and replacement. Although rapid prototyping fabrication techniques have been used to fabricate the scaffolds with desired design characteristics, controlling the interior architecture of the scaffolds has been a challenge due to CAD constrains. Moreover, thick engineered tissue scaffolds show inadequate success due to the limited diffusion of oxygen and nutrients to the interior part of the scaffolds. These limitations lead to improper tissue regeneration. In this work, in order to overcome these design and fabrication limitations, research has been expanded to generation of scaffolds which have inbuilt micro and nanoscale fluidic channels. Branching channels serve as material delivery paths to provide oxygen and nutrients for the cells. These channels are designed and controlled with Lindenmayer Systems (L-Systems) which is an influential way to create the complex branching networks by rewriting process. In this research, through the computational modeling process, to control the thickness, length, number and the position of the channels/branches, main attributes of L-Systems algorithms are characterized and effects of algorithm parameters are investigated. After the L-System based branching design is completed, 3D tissue scaffolds were fabricated by “UV-Maskless Photolithography”. In this fabrication technique, Polyethylene (glycol) Diacrylate (PEGDA), which is biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, was used as a fabrication material. Our results show that L-System parameters can be successfully controlled to design of 3D tissue engineered scaffolds. Our fabrication results also show that L-System based designed scaffolds with internal branch structures can be fabricated layer-by-layer fashion by Maskless Photolithography. This technology can be easily applied to engineering living systems.

Latisha Elijio
City College

Altitudinal Effects on Genetic Structure of Ants’ Populations in Chapada Diamantina National Park

Literature review on the Cephalotes (probably Cephalotes pusillus) has demonstrated the key role altitudinal changes play in affecting genetic variability and gene flow. To estimate genetic diversity the PCR system of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and primers screening were investigated in the present work. Six different primers- Terry, Mao, Manny, ISSRInt1, ISSRInt2 and ISSRInt3 were tested on a specie of Cephalotes, in an attempt to obtain markers with higher resolution that were specific to our assay. ISSR protocol was optimized based on the use of the concentration of MgCl2 (0.60 µL), lower concentrations of primer (0.5 µL), dNTPs (0.5 µL), Taq DNA polymerase (0.15 µL), and 0.50 µL of template DNA. According to this PCR system, two primers -Terry and Mao, out of the six were of high clarity and repetition. This study shows that ISSR markers could be well applied as a feasible tool to assess genetic diversity in Cephalotes.

Lisa Dazzell
Lehman College

Assessing the Factor Structure and Predictive Utility of Various Parenting Inventories

The objective of this project is to use factor analysis to determine which items in various parenting inventories, are measuring similar constructs. Factor analysis is a statistical procedure that is conducted in order to identify clusters or groups of related items in order to determine common factors that underlie responses to different items (questions). For the proposed project, I will be looking at existing data, from a study examining the relationship between parents and their children by identifying the parents’ parenting style. In this study, in order to ascertain the parenting style of an individual, participants were given questionnaires such as the “Parenting Practices Questionnaire (PPQ),” and the Parent Report of Parenting Practices Inventory (PRPBI) and their adolescent children completed child versions of these inventories (a child report PPQ and Child Report of Parenting Practices Inventory; CRPBI, respectively). By using factor analysis, I will figure out whether these various questionnaires measure the same concepts of parenting style. In the field many different inventories are used but until now, no one has compared responses by the same participants these various inventories nor tried to identify underlying factors being measured that they have in common.

Lisset Duran
John Jay College

Anti-Oxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of Rosmarinus Officinalis

Rosmarinus officinalis, known as Rosemary, has been used throughout history for its aromatic and medicinal properties. Rosemary has been shown to have anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective properties. However, this experiment will focus on it’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in particular. According to the National Center of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, it is currently estimated that about 1-1.3 million people suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Oxidative-stress has been associated with many diseases including liver and heart diseases as well as some cancers. Firstly, GC/MS was performed on Rosemary oil extracted through distillation to obtain a qualitative analysis of the essential oil. Along side this, solute extraction of Rosemary was being conducted and used to test antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the Rosemary extract. Our results show that the anti-inflammatory properties in the the essential oil extracted from Rosemary are mild at best. Pertaining the of the antioxidant effects of the Rosemary leaf extract, results show that it can be used as an antioxidant agent, showing better results than BHT.